TPM and OEE (Overall Equipment Efficiency): Measurement and Improvement of Equipment Efficiency - Bilig Opex
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TPM and OEE (Overall Equipment Efficiency): Measurement and Improvement of Equipment Efficiency

In today’s competitive business environment, the efficiency and performance of production facilities are crucial factors directly affecting the success of businesses. Ensuring the effective operation of production facilities and optimizing equipment usage are of critical importance for enhancing the profitability of enterprises. For this purpose, tools such as Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE) assist businesses in measuring and improving equipment efficiency.

What is TPM?

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a management approach focused on maintenance, efficiency, and operational continuity of equipment in production facilities. It typically originated as part of Japanese production systems and encompasses a set of strategies and practices aimed at ensuring equipment operates at its highest efficiency.

One of TPM’s main objectives is to reduce or prevent machine failures to increase production continuity. This involves measures such as regular maintenance schedules, establishing standards for equipment operation and maintenance personnel management effectively.

A key principle of TPM is to encourage the participation of all employees. This includes operators and maintenance personnel being responsible for daily equipment maintenance and continuously observing equipment to detect potential failures early. This is supported by group-based approaches known as “autonomous teams” or “small group activities.”

Another significant aspect of TPM is its adoption of planned maintenance and predictive maintenance strategies. This includes a data-driven approach to predict and plan for equipment failures. Performing maintenance operations within a predetermined program enhances equipment performance while reducing unexpected downtime.

However, TPM is not just an approach involving maintenance. It also aims to promote continuous improvement and productivity enhancement. This may include various initiatives such as continuous workflow improvement projects, kaizen activities, and productivity enhancement efforts.

TPM is a comprehensive approach to increasing equipment efficiency and achieving operational excellence in production facilities. By integrating strategies such as regular maintenance, operator involvement, planned maintenance, and continuous improvement, facilities can enhance their reliability and competitive advantage.

What is OEE?

Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE) is a key performance indicator used to measure and evaluate the performance of production equipment. OEE is used to understand how effective a facility or a specific production line is and to identify inefficiencies that may occur at each stage of the production process.

OEE is typically calculated as the product of three main components:

  1. Availability: This measures how much of the planned production time the production equipment actually spends producing. Machine breakdowns, unplanned stoppages, and other unexpected downtime reduce availability.
  2. Performance: This measures whether the equipment is operating at its maximum speed and how close it is to the ideal production rate. Speed losses, slow machine speeds, unplanned stoppages, and other factors can lead to performance degradation.
  3. Quality: This measures the quality of the products produced by the equipment. Quality losses occur when defective products need to be reworked or discarded.

These three components determine the overall effectiveness of a facility or production line. Each component can have a value between 0 and 100%, and OEE is expressed as the product of these three components:

OEE = Availability × Performance × Quality

For example, if the availability rate of equipment is 80%, the performance rate is 90%, and the quality rate is 95%, then OEE is calculated as follows:

OEE = 0.80 × 0.90 × 0.95 = 0.684 = 68.4%

This indicates that the overall effectiveness of the equipment is 68.4%.

The purpose of OEE is to provide a framework for identifying and improving specific areas to increase equipment efficiency. OEE data can help identify specific problem areas and focus improvement efforts, making production facilities more efficient and reducing idle capacities.

Relationship Between TPM and OEE:

TPM and OEE are complementary approaches. TPM helps improve OEE by enhancing equipment maintenance and daily operations. Similarly, OEE data can be used to measure and improve the effectiveness of TPM processes.

  1. Maintenance Strategies and Availability:
  • TPM encourages regular maintenance and planned maintenance strategies. These strategies help prevent or reduce equipment failures, thereby increasing availability.
  • Regular maintenance reduces unexpected downtime and unplanned breakdowns, thereby increasing availability.
  • Availability in OEE calculation shows how much time the equipment has been operational compared to the planned production time. Regular maintenance and planned maintenance allow the equipment to operate for longer periods, thus increasing the availability component of OEE.
  1. Performance and Continuous Improvement:
  • TPM promotes continuous improvement and productivity enhancement. Improvement activities can increase equipment performance, thus raising OEE.
  • Continuous improvement efforts optimize workflow, ensuring the machine operates at its ideal speed and increasing the performance component.
  • TPM practices like small group activities or kaizen events ensure operators and maintenance personnel continuously strive to improve equipment performance.
  1. Quality and Maintenance Impact:
  • TPM emphasizes regular maintenance and equipment management to improve quality. As quality improves, losses such as rework or discard of defective products decrease, increasing the quality component of OEE.
  • Regular maintenance ensures stable equipment operation and reduces failures that could negatively impact quality.

Benefits of TPM and OEE:

  • Lower operating costs: Regular maintenance and continuous improvement can reduce operating costs.
  • Increased productivity: Improved equipment efficiency means more production and less downtime.
  • Quality improvement: Higher quality standards due to continuous improvement efforts lead to fewer defective products.

TPM and OEE are important tools for increasing equipment efficiency and promoting continuous improvement in modern production facilities. Combining these approaches can enhance the competitive advantage of facilities and create a sustainable production environment.

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